The Fayum, approximately 100km south of Cairo, is not an oasis in the original meaning. The extensive, deep area with much water was populated and cultivated since a long time.
Today it is - near the Nile Valley - the granary of Egypt. There are many pyramids, temples and relics from all ancient periods.
At Wadi Hitan, the Whale Valley (World Heritage), more then 200 sceletons of whales were found. Some of them are shown on a pretty walk.
Between the upper two lakes at Widi Rayan you can visit the only waterfall of Egypt. Also the nature around (upper Qarun Lake at north, Gusur al-Arab dune area at south-west) is magnificent.